Learning to fear a second-order stimulus following vicarious learning

Reynolds, Gemma, Field, Andy P and Askew, Chris (2015) Learning to fear a second-order stimulus following vicarious learning. Cognition and Emotion, 31 (3). pp. 572-579. ISSN 0269-9931

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Vicarious fear learning refers to the acquisition of fear via observation of the fearful responses of others. The present study aims to extend current knowledge by exploring whether second-order vicarious fear learning can be demonstrated in children. That is, whether vicariously learnt fear responses for one stimulus can be elicited in a second stimulus associated with that initial stimulus. Results demonstrated that children's (5–11 years) fear responses for marsupials and caterpillars increased when they were seen with fearful faces compared to no faces. Additionally, the results indicated a second-order effect in which fear-related learning occurred for other animals seen together with the fear-paired animal, even though the animals were never observed with fearful faces themselves. Overall, the findings indicate that for children in this age group vicariously learnt fear-related responses for one stimulus can subsequently be observed for a second stimulus without it being experienced in a fear-related vicarious learning event. These findings may help to explain why some individuals do not recall involvement of a traumatic learning episode in the development of their fear of a specific stimulus.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: Childhood anxiety, Fear learning, Second-order conditioning, Vicarious learning, Observational learning
Schools and Departments: School of Psychology > Psychology
Subjects: B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion
Depositing User: Alexandra Barnard
Date Deposited: 02 Aug 2016 11:54
Last Modified: 09 Mar 2017 15:39
URI: http://srodev.sussex.ac.uk/id/eprint/62182

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