Hookah smoking is strongly associated with diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and obesity: a population-based study

Soflaei, Sara Saffar, Darroudi, Susan, Tayefi, Maryam, Tirkani, Abolfazl Nosrati, Moohebati, Mohsen, Ebrahim, Mahmoud, Esmaily, Habibollah, Parizadeh, Seyed Mohammad Reza, Heidari-Bakavoli, Ali Reza, Ferns, Gordon A and Ghayour-Morbarham, Majid (2018) Hookah smoking is strongly associated with diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and obesity: a population-based study. Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome, 10 (33). pp. 1-6. ISSN 1758-5996

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Abstract

Objectives
The adverse effects of cigarette smoking have been widely studied before, whilst the effects of hookah smoking has received less attention, although it is a common habit in the Middle East. Here we have investigated the effects of cigarette and hookah smoking on biochemical characteristics in a representative population sample derived from the Mashhad stroke and heart atherosclerotic disorder (MASHAD) cohort study, from Northeastern Iran.

Study design
A total of 9840 subjects from the MASHAD population study were allocated to five groups; non-smokers (6742), ex-smokers (976), cigarette smokers (864), hookah smokers (1067), concomitant cigarette and hookah smokers (41).

Methods
Baseline characteristics were recorded in a questionnaire. Biochemical characteristics were measured by routine methods. Data were analyzed using SPSS software and p < 0.05 was considered significant.

Results
After adjustment for age and sex; the presence of CVD, obesity, metabolic syndrome, DM and dyslipidemia were significantly (p < 0.001) related to smoking status. After multivariate analysis, HDL (p < 0.001), WBC (p < 0.001), MCV (p < 0.05), PLT (p < 0.01) and RDW (p < 0.001), and the presence of CVD (p < 0.01), obesity (p < 0.001), metabolic syndrome (p < 0.05) and DM (p < 0.01) remained significant between cigarette smokers and non-smokers. Between hookah smokers and non-smokers; uric acid (p < 0.001), PLT (p < 0.05) and RDW (p < 0.05), and the presence of obesity (p < 0.01), metabolic syndrome (p < 0.001), diabetes (p < 0.01) and dyslipidemia (p < 0.01) remained significant after logistic regression.

Conclusion
There was a positive association between hookah smoking and metabolic syndrome, diabetes, obesity and dyslipidemia which was not established in cigarette smoking.

Item Type: Article
Schools and Departments: Brighton and Sussex Medical School > Brighton and Sussex Medical School
Brighton and Sussex Medical School > Division of Medical Education
Depositing User: Lisa Mclaren
Date Deposited: 24 Oct 2018 09:05
Last Modified: 24 Oct 2018 09:05
URI: http://srodev.sussex.ac.uk/id/eprint/79675

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